Any unforeseen change in the power supply could result in a number of issues in businesses, residences, and workplaces. Electric power supply voltage changes have virtually little impact on connected loads. Many factors, including voltage surges, limitation, overload, and others, result in these fluctuations of the overvoltage and undervoltage safety systems. These systems are utilised generally in water pumps, agriculture motors, and other devices. In this post, we'll talk about the various undervoltage and overvoltage protection system control mechanisms, such as timers and comparators.

What do Over and Under Voltage Protections mean?

The voltage that surpasses its upper limit is referred to as an excess voltage in the characteristics that follow. The over voltage durations can resemble a transient, voltage spike, or power surge depending on how long they last. The fluctuations between time and voltage are depicted in the following graph. Over voltage Protection is referred to as a voltage that is lower than the fixed voltage.


Using a comparator, create an overvoltage and undervoltage circuit

The power supply, step down transformer, bridge rectifier, two preset pins, comparators, voltage regulator, relay, buzzer, and AC current are necessary components for the comparator circuit block diagram. To safeguard the load from harm, this circuit is designed to expand a low-voltage and high-voltage tripping mechanism. Generally speaking, we can see that the AC power supply fluctuates regularly in homes and businesses. Electronic devices are easily damaged by the AC power supply fluctuations. We can use the tripping mechanism of the over voltage Protection.

Circuit Block Diagram for Over- and Under-Voltage Using

Diagram of a circuit in action

Two integrated circuits (ICs) with the names LM324, LM7812, NPN transistor, two Zenor diodes, capacitors, and LED are included in the circuit schematic. We can see in the circuit that the 220 volt AC input is routed through transformer T1 and reduced to 12 volts with the aid of the bridge rectifier. We can change the voltage and alternating current from power smoothing filters' two capacitors, C1 & C2, to direct current.

We have covered the over voltage and under voltage protection systems in this article. I hope that after reading this essay, you now have a fundamental understanding of what it is about. Please feel free to remark in the box below if you have any questions concerning this article or the execution of the major electrical and technological projects. What are the roles of the overvoltage and undervoltage protection systems, I ask you?