Hemorrhagic septicemia (HS), is an economically important disease of buffaloes and other cattle, in warm regions of Asia, primarily in Southeast Asia, where the population of aquatic buffaloes is high. It is caused by a microorganism Pasteurella multocida. Vaccination for this disease is practiced widely in different geographies of the world.
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Generally, aluminium hydroxide gel vaccines, alum precipitated vaccines and/or bacterins are administered two times in a year for disease prevention. This is done twice a year due to the fact that these vaccines offer an immunity for four to six months. Several countries use OAV or oil adjuvant vaccine, which gives longer duration and high degree of immunity, i.e., upto a year.
Experimentally, a multiple emulsion and/or a double emulsion vaccine comprises a thin viscosity have also been developed by scientists which are given with OAV. At present, from a strain of fallow deer, a live vaccine has been developed in Myanmar. This live vaccine offers an immunity for more than a year, but it has its own limitations. The current review gives information about the vaccine for hemorrhagic septicemia, which has been developed using whole bacteria or components of bacteria.
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Traditional hemorrhagic septicemia is defined by the Organization for Animal Health (OIE) as it is affected by Pasteurella multocida serotypes E:2 and B:2 (Heddleston and Carter classification system) serotypes. Serotype B:2 has been identified in maximum parts of the world, where the disease is endemic, while serotype E:2 has been identified in Africa only. Septicemic pasteurellosis, which is clinically related to hemorrhagic septicemia can be spread by a wide range of other P. multocida serotypes and has been reported worldwide.
Normally killed or inactivated vaccines are used for the prevention of hemorrhagic septicemia. Other vaccines such as oil adjuvant vaccines, aluminum hydroxide gel vaccines, alum-precipitated vaccines and bacterins are also used for prevention of hemorrhagic septicemia. In animals of more than three years of age, an early two dosages, one to three month separately, is suggested, followed by booster vaccinations once or twice yearly.
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The oil adjuvant vaccine offers protection for 9 to 12 month and is given on a yearly basis. However, it is not popular among users owing to the difficulty in its administration and viscosity. Oil-based vaccines amalgamate with saponin or tween 80 and are have also been used to increase the immune protection and simplify administration.
The generally used aluminum hydroxide gel alum-precipitated vaccines have shorter duration of immunity, and twice-yearly booster vaccinations are suggested. Modified live or attenuated vaccines have been used with little success. A live virulent vaccine developed from a P. multocida serotype B:3 of fallow deer source appears active and is suggested for usage by the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in Southeast Asia.
Several subunit and altered live vaccines prepared from any recombinant or purified bacterial constituents have also been examined experimentally. There are several factors boosting the hemorrhagic septicemia vaccines market, which include technological innovations, increase in awareness about animal health, and rise in funding from government organizations and associations. Additionally, increase in the demand for milk and animal protein and rise in expenditure on health care of companion animals is driving the hemorrhagic septicemia vaccines market.
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The global hemorrhagic septicemia vaccines market has been segmented based on type of product, application, end-user, and geography. In terms of type of product, the hemorrhagic septicemia vaccines market has been bifurcated into oil adjuvant vaccines and aluminum hydroxide-adjuvant vaccines. Based on application, the market has been categorized into cattle, buffaloes. In terms of end-user, the market has been classified into veterinary hospitals, veterinary clinics, and animal care centers. Based on geography, the hemorrhagic septicemia vaccines market has been divided into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, and Rest of the World (RoW).
Major players operating in the global hemorrhagic septicemia vaccines market are Ceva, OVEJERO, Institute of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, Bio-Labs, Brilliant Bio Pharma Private Limited, C.A. LABORATORIOS ASOCIADOS, VECOL, FATRO, Indian Immunologicals Limited, Institute of Animal Health and Veterinary Biologicals, Intevac Pvt. Ltd., etc.
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