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CIPS Defining Business Needs Sample Questions (Q15-Q20):

Which of the following statements is the best definition of 'value engineering?

  • A. Building value into a new product from design stage onwards
  • B. Value achieved by an engineering department
  • C. Analysing perceived value after the product is available for sale
  • D. Producing good value products right first time.

Answer: A

Value Engineering (VE) is concerned with new products. It is applied during product development. The focus is on reducing costs, improving function or both, by way of teamwork-based product evaluation and analysis. This takes place before any capital is invested in tooling, plant or equipment.
This is very significant, because according to many reports, up to 80% of a product's costs (throughout the rest of its life-cycle), are locked in at the design development stage. This is under-standable when you consider the design of any product determines many factors, such as tooling, plant and equipment, labour and skills, training costs, materials, shipping, installation, maintenance, as well as decommissioning and recycle costs.
LO 3, AC 3.4

When a procurement manager considers a substitution, the number and nature of additional func-tions that substitute provides should be taken into account carefully. Which of the following ratio could help the procurement manager to make the right decision?

  • A. Price to Earnings ratio
  • B. Price to book value ratio
  • C. Value to price ratio
  • D. Reserve requirement ratio

Answer: C

One product substitutes for another if it offers buyers an inducement to switch that exceeds the cost or overcomes the resistance to doing so. A substitute offers an inducement to switch if the substitute provides the buyer with more value relative to its price than the product currently being used. There is always some cost of switching to a substitute because of the disruption and potential reconfiguration of buyer activities that must result, however. The threat of a substitute will vary depending on the size of the inducement relative to the required switching costs.
In addition to relative value to price and switching cost, the pattern of substitution is influenced by what I term the buyer's propensity to switch. Faced with equivalent economic inducements for substitution, different buyers will often evaluate substitution differently. The threat of substitution, then, is a function of three factors:
* The relative value/ price of a substitute compared to an industry's product
* The cost of switching to the substitute
* The buyer's propensity to switch
Porter, Michael E.. Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance (p. 278). Free Press. Kindle Edition.
The price-to-book ratio compares a company's market value to its book value. The market value of a company is its share price multiplied by the number of outstanding shares. The book value is the net assets of a company.
The price-to-earnings ratio (P/E ratio) is the ratio for valuing a company that measures its current share price relative to its earnings per share (EPS). The price-to-earnings ratio is also sometimes known as the price multiple or the earnings multiple.
The reserve ratio is the portion of reservable liabilities that commercial banks must hold onto, rather than lend out or invest. This is a requirement determined by the country's central bank, which in the United States is the Federal Reserve. It is also known as the cash reserve ratio.
LO 2, AC 2.2

Which of the following are most likely to increase the buyer's bargaining power?
1. Buyers are price sensitive
2. High set-up cost for new entrants
3. Threat of forward integration is high
4. Threat of backward integration is significant

  • A. 3 and 4 only
  • B. 2 and 4 only
  • C. 2 and 3 only
  • D. 1 and 4 only

Answer: D

Price sensitivity is the degree to which the price of a product affects consumers' purchasing behaviours. Buyer power will be stronger if buying organisation are price sensitive and vice versa.
Backward integration is a form of vertical integration in which a buying organisation expands its role to fulfil tasks formerly completed by businesses up the supply chain. Buyer power is strong if threat of backward integration is high.
Set-up cost is a determinant of threat of new entry. Some industries require very expensive assets in order to make products. The financial risk of entering the industry and not succeeding can deter many potential new entrants. The fewer new entrants, the fewer available substitutes, then the bar-gaining power of buyer can be negatively affected.
Forward integration is a business strategy that involves a form of vertical integration whereby business activities are expanded to include control of the direct distribution or supply of a compa-ny's products. Threat of forward integration is a determinant of supplier's bargaining power.
LO 2, AC 2.2

Which of the following standards specifies requirements for a quality management system?

  • A. ISO 14001:2015
  • B. ISO 27001
  • C. ISO 9001:2015
  • D. ISO 22000:2018

Answer: C

ISO 9001:2015 specifies requirements for a quality management system.
ISO 14001:2015 specifies the requirements for an environmental management system that an or-ganization can use to enhance its environmental performance. ISO 14001:2015 is intended for use by an organization seeking to manage its environmental responsibilities in a systematic manner that contributes to the environmental pillar of sustainability.
ISO 22000:2018 specifies food safety management systems - Requirements for any organization in the food chain ISO 27001 provides requirements for an information security management system.
LO 3, AC 3.1

Honda of America Manufacturing is a well established automobile manufacturer. It purchases tens of thousands of materials and parts from suppliers, however, only few of them are strategic. To these suppliers, Honda's procurement manager requires them to send details of labour, materials, overhead cost and profit. However, the suppliers are reluctant to submit such confidential infor-mation. Is the procurement manager's action appropriate?

  • A. Yes, because strategies can be introduced for reducing cost and improving the supplier relationships.
  • B. No, because no suppliers are willing to show sensitive information on their costs and profit.
  • C. Yes, because the procurement manager can get a good insight from the market
  • D. No, because procurement manager should conduct life-cycle analysis

Answer: A

With strategic suppliers, the aim should be to work co-operatively with them to find ways of reducing costs to achieve a target cost. It is necessary to work with the suppliers in carrying out open book costing by having first persuaded them of the need to do it. Open book can be used to establish a Target Cost, a Compensation Event value and can eventually be used to ensure the payment of actual costs to an organization. A number of forms of contract cater for this functionality of which only the NEC goes to into any great depth of methodology.
If the suppliers worry about leak of confidential information, procurement team can suggest them to sign a non-disclosure agreement. The buying organisation should also comply with data protection regulations. The Employer / individual responsible for a project's costs should ultimately take a pragmatic and sensible approach with regard to commercially or personally sensitive data provided by the contractor. The primary goal of all open book cost management is to provide Employer comfort and security in the accuracy of commercial data; this effectively means striking a balance between undertaking full audits and blind faith.
LO 1, AC 1.2


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