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Here is the information about the validity of the ISC SSCP Certification:

The certification is valid for three years, after which it expires, and you have to renew it by taking the SSCP exam again. The exam is divided into two parts, each with its own maximum score of 250 points.

The first part of the exam focuses on security risk management and is worth up to 125 points. This section covers how security policies are developed, along with procedures used to keep them updated. It also includes how to perform risk assessments plus policy compliance issues. Other topics include organizational security management; security policies; laws, regulations, and guidelines; and incident response scenarios. Most of the candidates think that it is extremely difficult. But it depends upon how well you are prepared for the exam. For the preparation of the SSCP exam, there are many resources including SSCP Dumps. If you prepare for your SSCP exam with smart work, you can not only pass the SSCP exam but can also get good marks.

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The ISC SSCP certification exam is a computer security exam which is being offered by the International Information Systems Security Certification Consortium or ISC2. This exam is related to system security. In this article, we will discuss the exam ISC SSCP and the best resources for the preparation of the exam, including SSCP Dumps. We will also discuss the advantages, costs, and topics of the ISC SSCP certification exam.

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ISC System Security Certified Practitioner (SSCP) Sample Questions (Q1042-Q1047):

Related to information security, the guarantee that the message sent is the message received with the assurance that the message was not intentionally or unintentionally altered is an example of which of the following?

  • A. confidentiality
  • B. identity
  • C. availability
  • D. integrity

Answer: D

Integrity is the guarantee that the message sent is the message received, and that the message was not intentionally or unintentionally altered.
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 60.

Which of the following is immune to the effects of electromagnetic interference (EMI) and therefore has a much longer effective usable length?

  • A. Fiber Optic cable
  • B. Axial cable
  • C. Coaxial cable
  • D. Twisted Pair cable

Answer: A

Section: Network and Telecommunications
Fiber Optic cable is immune to the effects of electromagnetic interference (EMI) and therefore has a much longer effective usable length (up to two kilometers in some cases).
Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten Domains of Computer Security, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Page 72.

In the Bell-LaPadula model, the Star-property is also called:

  • A. The simple security property
  • B. The confidentiality property
  • C. The tranquility property
  • D. The confinement property

Answer: B

Section: Access Control
The Bell-LaPadula model focuses on data confidentiality and access to classified information, in contrast to the Biba Integrity Model which describes rules for the protection of data integrity.
In this formal model, the entities in an information system are divided into subjects and objects.
The notion of a "secure state" is defined, and it is proven that each state transition preserves security by moving from secure state to secure state, thereby proving that the system satisfies the security objectives of the model.
The Bell-LaPadula model is built on the concept of a state machine with a set of allowable states in a system.
The transition from one state to another state is defined by transition functions.
A system state is defined to be "secure" if the only permitted access modes of subjects to objects are in accordance with a security policy.
To determine whether a specific access mode is allowed, the clearance of a subject is compared to the classification of the object (more precisely, to the combination of classification and set of compartments, making up the security level) to determine if the subject is authorized for the specific access mode.
The clearance/classification scheme is expressed in terms of a lattice. The model defines two mandatory access control (MAC) rules and one discretionary access control (DAC) rule with three security properties:
The Simple Security Property - a subject at a given security level may not read an object at a higher security level (no read-up).
The property (read "star"-property) - a subject at a given security level must not write to any object at a lower security level (no write-down). The property is also known as the Confinement property.
The Discretionary Security Property - use an access control matrix to specify the discretionary access control.
The transfer of information from a high-sensitivity document to a lower-sensitivity document may happen in the Bell-LaPadula model via the concept of trusted subjects. Trusted Subjects are not restricted by the property.
Untrusted subjects are.
Trusted Subjects must be shown to be trustworthy with regard to the security policy. This security model is directed toward access control and is characterized by the phrase: "no read up, no write down." Compare the Biba model, the Clark-Wilson model and the Chinese Wall.
With Bell-LaPadula, users can create content only at or above their own security level (i.e. secret researchers can create secret or top-secret files but may not create public files; no write-down). Conversely, users can view content only at or below their own security level (i.e. secret researchers can view public or secret files, but may not view top-secret files; no read-up).
Strong Property
The Strong Property is an alternative to the Property in which subjects may write to objects with only a matching security level. Thus, the write-up operation permitted in the usual Property is not present, only a write- to-same level operation. The Strong Property is usually discussed in the context of multilevel database management systems and is motivated by integrity concerns.
Tranquility principle
The tranquility principle of the Bell-LaPadula model states that the classification of a subject or object does not change while it is being referenced. There are two forms to the tranquility principle: the "principle of strong tranquility" states that security levels do not change during the normal operation of the system and the
"principle of weak tranquility" states that security levels do not change in a way that violates the rules of a given security policy.
Another interpretation of the tranquility principles is that they both apply only to the period of time during which an operation involving an object or subject is occurring. That is, the strong tranquility principle means that an object's security level/label will not change during an operation (such as read or write); the weak tranquility principle means that an object's security level/label may change in a way that does not violate the security policy during an operation.
Reference(s) used for this question:

When two or more separate entities (usually persons) operating in concert to protect sensitive functions or information must combine their knowledge to gain access to an asset, this is known as?

  • A. Dual Control
  • B. Segragation of duties
  • C. Separation of duties
  • D. Need to know

Answer: A

Section: Security Operation Adimnistration
The question mentions clearly "operating together". Which means the BEST answer is Dual Control.
Two mechanisms necessary to implement high integrity environments where separation of duties is paramount are dual control or split knowledge.
Dual control enforces the concept of keeping a duo responsible for an activity. It requires more than one employee available to perform a task. It utilizes two or more separate entities (usually persons), operating together, to protect sensitive functions or information.
Whenever the dual control feature is limited to something you know., it is often called split knowledge (such as part of the password, cryptographic keys etc.) Split knowledge is the unique "what each must bring" and joined together when implementing dual control.
To illustrate, let say you have a box containing petty cash is secured by one combination lock and one keyed lock. One employee is given the combination to the combo lock and another employee has possession of the correct key to the keyed lock. In order to get the cash out of the box both employees must be present at the cash box at the same time. One cannot open the box without the other. This is the aspect of dual control.
On the other hand, split knowledge is exemplified here by the different objects (the combination to the combo lock and the correct physical key), both of which are unique and necessary, that each brings to the meeting.
This is typically used in high value transactions / activities (as per the organizations risk appetite) such as:
Approving a high value transaction using a special user account, where the password of this user account is split into two and managed by two different staff. Both staff should be present to enter the password for a high value transaction. This is often combined with the separation of duties principle. In this case, the posting of the transaction would have been performed by another staff. This leads to a situation where collusion of at least 3 people are required to make a fraud transaction which is of high value.
Payment Card and PIN printing is separated by SOD principles. Now the organization can even enhance the control mechanism by implementing dual control / split knowledge. The card printing activity can be modified to require two staff to key in the passwords for initiating the printing process. Similarly, PIN printing authentication can also be made to be implemented with dual control. Many Host Security modules (HSM) comes with built in controls for dual controls where physical keys are required to initiate the PIN printing process.
Managing encryption keys is another key area where dual control / split knowledge to be implemented.
PCI DSS defines Dual Control as below. This is more from a cryptographic perspective, still useful:
Dual Control: Process of using two or more separate entities (usually persons) operating in concert to protect sensitive functions or information. Both entities are equally responsible for the physical protection of materials involved in vulnerable transactions. No single person is permitted to access or use the materials (for example, the cryptographic key). For manual key generation, conveyance, loading, storage, and retrieval, dual control requires dividing knowledge of the key among the entities. (See also Split Knowledge).
Split knowledge: Condition in which two or more entities separately have key components that individually convey no knowledge of the resultant cryptographic key.
It is key for information security professionals to understand the differences between Dual Control and Separation of Duties. Both complement each other, but are not the same.
The following were incorrect answers:
Segregation of Duties address the splitting of various functions within a process to different users so that it will not create an opportunity for a single user to perform conflicting tasks.
For example, the participation of two or more persons in a transaction creates a system of checks and balances and reduces the possibility of fraud considerably. So it is important for an organization to ensure that all tasks within a process has adequate separation.
Let us look at some use cases of segregation of duties
A person handling cash should not post to the accounting records
A loan officer should not disburse loan proceeds for loans they approved Those who have authority to sign cheques should not reconcile the bank accounts The credit card printing personal should not print the credit card PINs Customer address changes must be verified by a second employee before the change can be activated.
In situations where the separation of duties are not possible, because of lack of staff, the senior management should set up additional measure to offset the lack of adequate controls.
To summarise, Segregation of Duties is about Separating the conflicting duties to reduce fraud in an end to end function.
Need To Know (NTK):
The term "need to know", when used by government and other organizations (particularly those related to the military), describes the restriction of data which is considered very sensitive. Under need-to-know restrictions, even if one has all the necessary official approvals (such as a security clearance) to access certain information, one would not be given access to such information, unless one has a specific need to know; that is, access to the information must be necessary for the conduct of one's official duties. As with most security mechanisms, the aim is to make it difficult for unauthorized access to occur, without inconveniencing legitimate access.
Need-to-know also aims to discourage "browsing" of sensitive material by limiting access to the smallest possible number of people.
First, you probably nototiced that both Separation of Duties and Segregation of Duties are synonymous with each others. This means they are not the BEST answers for sure. That was an easy first step.
For the exam remember:
Separation of Duties is synonymous with Segregation of Duties
Dual Control is synonymous with Split Knowledge
Reference(s) used for this question:
Hernandez CISSP, Steven (2012-12-21). Official (ISC)2 Guide to the CISSP CBK, Third Edition ((ISC)2 Press) (Kindle Locations 16048-16078). Auerbach Publications. Kindle Edition.

Which of the following would be the MOST serious risk where a systems development life cycle methodology is inadequate?

  • A. The project will exceed the cost estimates.
  • B. The project will be completed late.
  • C. The project will be incompatible with existing systems.
  • D. The project will fail to meet business and user needs.

Answer: D

This is the most serious risk of inadequate systems development life cycle methodolgy.
The following answers are incorrect because :
The project will be completed late is incorrect as it is not most devastating as the above answer.
The project will exceed the cost estimates is also incorrect when compared to the above correct answer.
The project will be incompatible with existing systems is also incorrect when compared to the above correct answer.
Reference: Information Systems Audit and Control Association, Certified Information Systems Auditor 2002 review manual, chapter 6: Business Application System Development, Acquisition, Implementation and Maintenance (page 290).


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