The current state Flag of Peru was officially adopted on February 25, 1825, and modified in 1950. The flag consists of three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), white, and red with the coat of arms centred in the white,The coat of arms features a shield bearing a vicuna (representing fauna), a cinchona tree (the source of quinine, signifying flora), and a yellow cornucopia spilling out coins (denoting mineral wealth); red recalls blood shed for independence, white symbolises peace


The colours are said to symbolise the Incas and their lasting impact on the country. Also, red and white are the colours chosen by Jose de San Martin, The Liberator. White symbolises peace and purity, while red represents the blood spilled in the fight. The national flag has a height to length proportion of 2:3.


History Of The Peruvian Flag


The first flag of Peru was flown in 1820. The colours red and white were chosen in honour of Jose de San Martin, who helped lead the struggle for independence from Spanish rule in Argentina, Chile, and Peru. It is a reference to San Martin’s sight of a flock of flamingos taking flight upon his arrival in Peru. Unlike Peru’s current flag, however, the design was different. It consisted of two red and two white triangles with a coat of arms at the centre.


A new design was flown two years later, consisting of two horizontal red stripes at the top and bottom with a white stripe in the centre, all of equal length. In the centre of the flag was a red sun, the old emblem of the Inca Empire. But because this design was too similar to that of the Spanish flag, the flag was redesigned again. This time, the stripes were vertical, though the Inca-inspired red sun remained in the centre.


The current national flag of Peru was finally established on February 25, 1825. It omitted the red sun in favour of a new coat of arms at its centre, inside the white stripe. The coat of arms consists of a wreath made of palm and laurel branches, framing a shield that is divided into three parts. One part features a vicuna, a camel-like creature that is closely related to the llama and alpaca. The vicuna is supposed to represent Peruvian fauna, and also stands for freedom, national pride, and heroism. The second part of the shield features a cinchona tree, from which many traditional remedies are made. The third, bottom part of the shield features a cornucopia overflowing with silver and gold coins, representing Peru’s mineral wealth.

Variants Of The Peruvian Flag

The flag most commonly flown during national ceremonies, including events in which government officials such as the president are present, is known as the Pabellon Nacional. It contains the aforementioned red and white stripes with the previously described shield from the coat of arms at the centre. The shield is flanked on both the right and left by smaller flags resembling the civil ensign (see below), with a wreath appearing at the top. This flag is also commonly displayed in government offices.


Civil Ensign

The civil flag, known as the Bandera Nacional, literally meaning national flag, is the one commonly flown by members of the public. It basically consists of the flag minus the coat of arms, which were removed from this variant by military dictator, General Manuel A. Odria, in 1950.

War Flag

The so-called Bandera de Guerra is used by Peru’s police and military. It very much resembles the national flag, though the coat of arms appears slightly different.

The Naval Jack

 The Peruvian Naval Jack is different from all the other flag variants in that it is designed, not with stripes, but with a white square on a red field, and the coat of arms at the center. It is flown by the country’s battleships.

Symbols Of PeruNational Coat Of Arms Of Peru

The Peruvian coat of arms is largely dominated by the central shield, which is divided into three sections. The upper left section shows the national animal of Peru, the Vincuña. The upper right section shows the cinchona tree. Cinchona trees are used to make quinine, which is a powerful anti-malaria drug. The lower section shows a cornucopia full of coins. These coins represent the mineral wealth of the country. The Holm Oak Civil crown above the shield signifies victory and glory.

National Anthem

  • Anthem Title: “Himno Nacional del Perú” (National Anthem of Peru)
  • Music Composer: José Bernardo Alzedo
  • Lyricist: José de la Torre Ugarte
  • Date of Adoption: 1821

“Himno Nacional del Perú” is the national anthem of Peru. The music of the anthem have been composed by José Bernardo Alzedo. The lyrics of the anthem have been written by José de la Torre Ugarte. The anthem was officially adopted in 1821. 

The Currency Of Peru Is The Peruvian Sol

The currency of Peru is known as the sol. The sol substituted the Peruvian inti in 1991. The word sol is derived from Latin (solidus) although the word also refers to sun in Spanish language. The currency is portioned into 100 parts called centimos (cents). After the currency introduction in 1991, the currency was commonly known as Nuevo until the Peruvian congress pioneered the renaming of the currency just to sol.




At the moment, the coins in circulation were produced and adopted in 1991 in denominations of 1, 5, 10; 20 and 50 centimos plus 1 sol. Retailers doing cash transactions are obliged to use ten centimos or to go up to the nearest five. Electronic transactions and billings are processed in the same equivalence. An aluminium 5 centavo coin was minted and adopted in 2007. All the coins have a portrait representing the Coat of Arms of Peru with an image of central reserve bank of Peru at the obverse side of the coins. The denomination values are represented at the back side of each coin.


Peruvian banknotes were circulated in 1990 in denominations of 10, 20,50, and 100 soles. A bank note of 200 soles was later adopted in 1995. All the denominations of notes are uniform in size. A 10 soles note was introduced into circulation in 1991. The 10 soles note is green in colour with a portrait of Jose Quinones Gonzales.


The 20 soles note is orange with an image of Raul porras and a Huaca del dragon. The 50 soles note is brown and contains an image of Abraham valdelomar. The 100 soles note is blue with an image of Jorge Basadre and the national library of Peru. The 200 soles note, produced in 1995, is pink in colour while the one produced in 2011 is grey in colour.

Inflation and Value

Since its introduction, sol has maintained a low inflation rate of less than 1.5%, being ranked the lowest inflation in the entire Latin America. The currency has also reserved a strong stable exchange rate of 2.2 to 3.66 at each United States dollar.

Historical Currencies Of Peru

The Peruvian sol replaced the Peruvian inti in 1991. Inti was the currency of Peru Flag between 1985 and 1991 and was replaced due to the country's bad economy and hyperinflation. It also replaced the sol in 1985 for the same reasons it was replaced in 1991. Inti was subdivided into 100 centimos. The coins and notes were introduced in 1985 in various denominations, including 1, 5, 10, 20 and 50 centimos coins and 10, 50, and 100 intis notes. All coins featured Miguel Grau, while banknotes featured several personalities depending on the denomination. Some of these personalities include Ricardo Palma (5 intis), Nicolás de Piérola (50 intis), Andrés Avelino Cáceres (1,000 intis), and César Vallejo (10,000 intis)